Management

Henry Gantt

Henry Laurence Gantt, A.B., M.E. (1861 23 November 1919) was an American mechanical engineer and management consultant who is best known for developing the Gantt chart in the 1910s. Gantt charts were employed on major infrastructure projects including the Hoover Dam and Interstate highway system and continue to be an important tool in project management. Gantt was born in Calvert County, Maryland. He graduated from McDonogh School in 1878 and then went on to Stevens Institute of Technology in New Jersey. He then worked as a teacher and draughtsman before becoming a mechanical engineer. In 1887, he joined Frederick W. Taylor in applying scientific management principles to their work at Midvale Steel and Bethlehem Steelworking there with Taylor until 1893. In his later career as a management consultantfollowing the invention of the Gantt charthe also designed the 'task and bonus' system of wage payment and additional measurement methods worker efficiency and productivity. In 1916, influenced by Thorsten Veblen he set up the New Machine, an association which sought to apply the criteria of industrial efficiency to the political process. With the MarxistWalter Polakov he led a breakaway from the 1916 ASME conference to discuss Gantt's call for socialising industrial under the control of managers and Polakov's analysis of inefficiency in the industrial context. Henry Gantt is listed under Stevens Institute of Technology alumni. The American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) awards an annual medal in honor of Henry Laurence Gantt. Henry Gantt's legacy to production management is the following: The Gantt chart: Still accepted as an important management tool today, it provides a graphic schedule for the planning and controlling of work, and recording progress towards stages of a project. The chart has a modern variation, Program Ev

luation and Review Technique (PERT). Industrial Efficiency: Industrial efficiency can only be produced by the application of scientific analysis to all aspects of the work in progress. The industrial management role is to improve the system by eliminating chance and accidents. The Task And Bonus System: He linked the bonus paid to managers to how well they taught their employees to improve performance. The social responsibility of business: He believed that businesses have obligations to the welfare of the society in which they operate. [edit]Gantt charts Main article: Gantt chart A Gantt chart showing three kinds of schedule dependencies (in red) and percent complete indications. Gantt created many different types of charts. He designed his charts so that foremen or other supervisors could quickly know whether production was on schedule, ahead of schedule, or behind schedule. Modern project management software includes this critical function even now. Gantt (1903) describes two types of balances: the "mans record", which shows what each worker should do and did do, and the "daily balance of work", which shows the amount of work to be done and the amount that is done. Gantt gives an example with orders that will require many days to complete. The daily balance has rows for each day and columns for each part or each operation. At the top of each column is the amount needed. The amount entered in the appropriate cell is the number of parts done each day and the cumulative total for that part. Heavy horizontal lines indicate the starting date and the date that the order should be done. According to Gantt, the graphical daily balance is "a method of scheduling and recording work". In this 1903 article, Gantt also describes the use of: "production cards" for assigning work to each operator and recording how much was done each day.