Management

History

The verb manage comes from the Italian maneggiare (to handle Ч especially tools), which in turn derives from the Latin manus (hand). The French word mesnagement (later menagement) influenced the development in meaning of the English word management in the 17th and 18th centuries. Some definitions of management are: Organization and coordination of the activities of an enterprise in accordance with certain policies and in achievement of clearly defined objectives. Management is often included as a factor of production along with machines, materials and money. According to the management guru Peter Drucker (1909Ц2005), the basic task of a management is twofold: marketing and innovation. Directors and managers have the power and responsibility to make decisions to manage an enterprise when given the authority by the shareholders. As a discipline, management comprises the interlocking functions of formulating corporate policy and organizing, planning, controlling, and directing the firm's resources to achieve the policy's objectives. The size of management can range from one person in a small firm to hundreds or thousands of managers in multinational companies. In large firms the board of directors formulates the policy which is implemented by the chief executive officer. Theoretical scope At first, one views management functionally, such as measuring quantity, adjusting plans, meeting goals. This applies even in situations planning does not take place. From this perspective, Henri Fayol (1841Ц1925) considers manageme t to consist of six functions: forecasting, planning, organizing, commanding, coordinating and controlling. He was one of the most influential contributors to modern concepts of management. Another way of thinking, Mary Parker Follett (1868Ц1933), defined management as "the art of getting things done through people". She described management as philosophy. Some people, however, find this definition useful but far too narrow. The phrase "management is what managers do" occurs widely, suggesting the difficulty of defining management, the shifting nature of definitions and the connection of managerial practices with the existence of a managerial cadre or class. One habit of thought regards management as equivalent to "business administration" and thus excludes management in places outside commerce, as for example in charities and in the public sector. More realistically, however, every organization must manage its work, people, processes, technology, etc. to maximize effectiveness. Nonetheless, many people refer to university departments which teach management as "business schools." Some institutions (such as the Harvard Business School) use that name while others (such as the Yale School of Management) employ the more inclusive term "management." English speakers may also use the term "management" or "the management" as a collective word describing the managers of an organization, for example of a corporation. Historically this use of the term was often contrasted with the term "Labor" referring to those being managed.