Management

Standardization

Standardization or standardisation is the process of developing and implementing technical standards. The goals of right standardization can be to help with independence of single suppliers (commoditization), compatibility, interoperability, safety, repeatability, or quality. In social sciences, including economics, the idea of standardization is close to the solution for a coordination problem, a situation in which all parties can realize mutual gains, but only by making mutually consistent decisions. Standardization is defined as best technical application consentual wisdom inclusive of processes for selection in making appropriate choices for ratification coupled with consistent decisions for maintaining obtained standards. This view includes the case of "spontaneous standardization processes", to produce de facto standards. The existence of a published standard does not necessarily imply that it is useful or correct. Just because an item is stamped with a standard number does not, by itself, indicate that the item is fit for any particular use. The people who use the item or service (engineers, trade unions, etc.) or specify it (building codes, government, industry, etc.) have the responsibility to consider the available standards, specify the correct one, enforce compliance, and use the item correctly... Validation of suitability is necessary. Standardisation is implemented greatly when companies release new products or software to market. Compatibility is imp rtant for products to be successful; many devices coming out have USB, Ethernet, or other standard types of connection. This allows consumers to use their new items along with what they already own. By using standardisation, groups can easily communicate through the set guidelines, in order to maintain focus. The method is made to facilitate processes and tasks; this is why it interlocks with lean manufacturing. In the context of social criticism and social sciences, standardisation often means the process of establishing standards of various kinds and improving efficiency to handle people, their interactions, cases, and so forth. Examples include formalization of judicial procedure in court, and establishing uniform criteria for diagnosing mental disease. Standardisation in this sense is often discussed along with (or synonymously to) such large-scale social changes as modernization, bureaucratization, homogenization, and centralization of society. In the context of business information exchanges, standardisation refers to the process of developing data exchange standards for specific business processes using specific syntaxes. These standards are usually developed in voluntary consensus standards bodies such as the United Nations Center for Trade Facilitation and Electronic Business (UN/CEFACT), the World Wide Web Consortium W3C, the Telecommunications Industry Association (TIA), and the Organization for the Advancement of Structured Information Standards (OASIS).